Marshall N. Heyman BASYC, Falls Church, Virginia
PASF Journal Volume IV

This paper represents an effort to delineate the qualities and the dynamics of a Fourth Dimension for the Personali- ty Assessment System (PAS) and to relate it to a triad of tentatively selected subtests. John Gittinger's pioneer devel- opment of the first three fundamental dimensions of the PAS drew on an impressive mass of clinical and experimen- tal experience. His first volumes of the "PAS Atlas" provid- ed case illustrations for virtually all of the classifications within the original PAS space. In contrast, there has been relatively little experience so far in observing the interac- tions of the Fourth Dimension Variables and their relation- ship to behavior with respect to the overall PAS model. Accordingly, there is still room for study and debate regarding the way in which they should be scored, weighted, and interpreted in concert with the other dimensions of the PAS. This paper is a preliminary statement which draws on substantial experience with these subtests in other applica- tions and on a growing body of observations of their behavior with the core PAS and its dynamics in clinical and operational application. Still, this is largely a conceptual statement of what the dynamics of the Fourth Dimension should be or might be. As such, it is subject to change in every respect as additional experience is gained in applying this concept. Meanwhile, it presumes to provide a road- map for acquiring that experience.

The Variables

The psychometric examination of the Fourth Dimension employs three subtests: The "Stroop Task," or Color Nam- ing with interference (CN); the Digit Symbol from the existing Wechsler batteries (DS); and a Time Estimation task (TE).

Saunders suggests that the Stroop Task (CN) reflects "the individual's limit for learning, or his capacity for automatization," (i.e., the facility with which the individu- al is able to internalize, habituate, integrate, and make automatic or spontaneous use of the information and skills he/she has acquired). śColor naming is learned very early in life and has presumably become a maximally automa- tized skill; its resistance to the interference stress is there- fore a measure of the individual's ultimate learning capacity." Saunders reports that persons who are good at the Stroop Task and consequently have a high Color Naming score (CN+) tolerate stress well, and are even facilitated by stress. (See footnote 1) For example, a study of Air Force traffic controllers discovered that most operators had an "optimal level of stress" relative to performance: they were as likely to make errors when they had "too few" aircraft to monitor as when they had "too many." They performed most effectively when they were in constant communication with aircraft in their cave. Managers and airplane pilots tend to be CN+. Aging and hospitalized subjects frequently give up on the task. Persons with high CN presumably have confidence in their learned abilities and skills and, hence, have confidence in themselves. Further, it is reasonable to assume that beyond an optimal level of performance, persons with too high a CN score may be overconfident. Many aircraft controllers do not regard their tasks as stressful, and outstanding high school students who are stunned by early failures in college (as distinct from outstanding high schoolers who manage to do well in their first college challenges) may be examples of those with "too high" CN skills. In primi- tive terms, low performers on Stroop (CN-) do not like stress situations and avoid stress when possible. They dislike surprises and confrontation. Presumably, they have a generalized lack of confidence in their abilities and, therefore, in themselves. In extreme cases, these individu- als may wall themselves off from new experiences. Agoraphobics, those who have a "fear of the marketplace," probably represent one manifestation of the extremely low CN.

The Digit Symbol (DS) task (see footnote 2) represents a capacity for new learning-the facility, and the willingness, to muster one's resources in order to master new experiences. It reflects the level of available and effective energy. It can be viewed as a statement of the effectiveness with which the individual can make use of resources and skills character- ized by the rest of the PAS profile, including the level of intelligence. Persons with retained, or mid-level, DS scores are able to "get it all together." Extremely high DS scores suggest ineffective overactivity, a kind of psychological tachycardia, which can be symptomatic of hysteria. Persons with overly low DS are likely to have difficulty coping with present demands and be overly withdrawn if I (and especially if Iu), or clinically depressed if E (and especially if Eu). (footnote 3) In terms of the Fourth Dimension, persons with retained DS scores are reasonably comfortable in dealing with new problems. Those with high normal scores work well under stress and cope effectively, while those with low normal scores are prone to collapse under stress. It should be noted that some people, who might be called "professional coders," may achieve artificially high DS scores. Thus, stenographers, stenotypists, telegraphers, and persons en- gaged in similar activities may achieve high DS scores which should not be regarded as "all that high" for interpretative purposes. Ergo, when abnormally high DS scores are achieved, the Subject's vocational and avocation- al background should be examined for evidence of acquired, "nonclinical" factors.

Time Estimation (TE) is essentially a measure of patience and of tolerance with the pace of normal activities. Persons with retained TE scores are comfortable with the flow of events and are in harmony with the sequence of time. Persons who produce high TE scores (TE+) because they underestimate the pace at which time passes would presumably be laid back, and even lethargic in extreme cases. Persons who produce low TE scores (TE-) because they perceive that time is rushing by would presumably be characteristically impatient, and in extreme cases should show frantic and hyperactive behavior. Ernest Barrett found that persons making very short time estimates were "full blown psychopaths," while those with retained scores were not psychopaths. (It would be important to know what other test materials were used before generalizing too far from this study. It is interesting to note, however, that in other contexts, Green Berets and air traffic controllers have both been found to be high on the MMPI psychopathic scale.) At any rate, an individual's patience or impatience, activity level, the need for "action" and the desire to get things done, productively in some relationships and impul- sively in others, all seem to be interrelated. The Time Estimation task apparently illuminates these qualities.

Like DS, the ability to perform well on TE is probably conditioned by some time-related activities. Professional musicians (especially marching bandsmen), drill sergeants, long-distance competitive runners, jockeys, and crew coxswains are among those who probably are better than average in making accurate time estimations.

Psychometric Considerations

Instructions for scoring the subtests and converting the raw scores to weighted scores (WTS) are contained in the PAS Fourth-Dimension Kit (1985) prepared by David R. Saunders.

The process of converting WTS to descriptors in PAS related terms invites some special attention to the ways in which these subtests may differ from other tests in the conventional Wechsler batteries. The Fourth Dimension subtests seem to have a particular neuro-psychological character, and there seems less reason to suppose that performance on these measures should vary in relation to Normal Level. This is most clearly apparent in the case of Time Estimation: There is no reason to expect that persons with high NL will make longer time estimations than persons with lower NLs. If anything, we would probably infer that accuracy of TE would improve with NL, rather than length of perception. This would imply that deviation from-NL would become increasingly negative as NL increases.

Some tangential evidence for this is afforded by the data bank statistics for DS as of 1980 (when DS was the only test in this triad which appeared in the data bank). For 10,495 American cases in the bank, the mean score for DS is 2.08 WTS points below NL, a difference of -.62 standard deviations. This implies that more than 70% of this population (which is a high NL population) have DS scores below normal level (NL).

From this admittedly tenuous logical and statistical evidence, this hypothetical and experimental Fourth Dimension will be based not on NL, but ona weighted score of 12. The table for converting WTS to PAS terminology appears below:*

For initial experimental purposes, this table should suffice for converting all cases where NL is 10 or above (which encompasses the overwhelming bulk of cases typically tested for PAS application).

This table establishes that for all cases where NL is 10 or above, a CN WTS between 10 and 14 will be interpreted as G (for Goal Oriented). WTS of 15 or above will be interpre- ted as G+. Scores of 9 or below will be interpreted as T (for Task Oriented).

As the compensator variable, a DS score in the range of 10-14 will be interpreted as Gu, or TC. Scores of 15 or above will be designated as Gu+ or Tc+. Scores of 9 and below are characterized as Gc (Gc-, Gc +), or Tu (Tu-, Ta+). Thus, as a compensator variable, DS functions according to the same pattern as PC (in relation to A and U) and Similarities (in relation to R and F).

As a modifier variable, TE follows the same pattern as DS.

With the psychometric qualities of compensation and. modification determined in this way, conversion to the "third formula" notation follows in the same pattern as elsewhere in the PAS. Thus:

 Gu = Db(g)  Tu = b(t) 
 Gc = D(t*)  Tc = Db(g*) 

 Guu = c(g)  Tuu = c(t)*
 Guc = c(t') Tuc= c(g')* 
 Gcc = c(t}  Tcc= c(g) 
 Gcu = c(g.) Tcu= c(t.)

Footnote 4 in the original paper:

Dave Saunders, in his manual for administering and scoring the Fourth Dimension subtests, espouses a somewhat different basis for coding the interaction between these subtests and for evolving the "third formula" notations at the contact level. In his presentation, DS is coded high or low in relation to NL. CN is then coded high or low according to its relation to DS. TE, as here, is coded with reference to absolute score. This author concurs with Saunders in regard to the typography at basic level:

 Fu = b(g) = Tu = b(t) Ge = b(t*) = Te = b(g*) 
Beyond that, we diverge. Saunders calls Tuu a c(g') and Tuc a c(t). This perpetuates the inconsistency in which we call an Ruu a c(f') and an Ruc a ¢c(r). While a "foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of small minds," this author cherishes a coding scheme which, like Little Abner, "any fool can understand."

Note The scoring system used in the Formula Calculator on this web site uses mostly the Saunder's notation and methods.

 Table 1. Converting WTS to PAS Terminology
  WTS              5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17
  CN               T+      T       T-               G               G+
  DS      (G)      c+      c       c-               u               u+
  DS      (T)      u+      u       u-               c               c+
  TE      (G)      c+      c       c-  o            u               u+
  TE      (T)      u+      u       u-  o            c               c+
Note on "o" for TE: (original footnote 5)

STE scores of 10 are coded as "o," or equivocal. It is left to "clinical judgment' to decide if a TE score of 10 will be considered high or low, in view of other dynamics on the profile, including NL, and the "slant" or thrust of the other two scores as viewed overall.

For general clinical-interpretive purposes, scores in the 10-14 range will be regarded as "good scores," reflecting control, balance, perspective, and the ability to muster appropriate degrees of activity, energy, and relevant resources to cope with stress. Scores of 15 and above are high, and suggestive of potential problems in coping with stress and confrontation. With CN+ (or G+), this may suggest too much perspective: An individual so long range and goal oriented that he/she fails to perceive stress signals in "now time" that he/she ought properly to contend with. (Nero is perhaps a case in point.) With DS, these very high scores suggest hyper-mobilization, and possible hysterical reactions. With TE, these very high scores suggest impassivity and lethargy.

Scores of 7 and below will be regarded as very low. With T+, this would suggest a preoccupation with minutiae in the presence of stress: inability to cope with the stressful forest for counting all the leaves on the trees. With DS, these low scores would suggest depression (with Es) and inappropriate withdrawal (with Is) as a response to stress or confrontation. (see footnote 6) With TE, these very low scores would suggest manic or frenetic activity, impulsivity, or a psychopathic predisposition (depending on the information in the rest of the overall profile).

The Dynamics

Primitive G (Goal Oriented)

The Primitive G individual has a high capacity for learning up to the level of his ability, and for assimilating his learned skills and abilities in productive fashion. He has confidence in his skills and confidence in himself, and accordingly he has confidence in his ability to cope with stress, conflict, and confrontation. Like the Primitive A, whose confidence gives him a "leg up" in dealing with social situations, the P(G) has a similarly innate advantage in coping with stress. He is goal oriented, vested with a sense of perspective which keeps him from getting bogged down in the press of immediate events and immediate pressures. Thus, he is able to take the long range view of problems, and to cope with crises in an appropriate perspective. He is tolerant of stress, motivated and facilitated by crises, confrontations, deadlines, and other pressures.

Basic Gu: b(g).

This individual accomodates stress and conflict, and stays "in her element'. when the pressure is on. She is upwardly mobile, in the sense that she has confidence in her ability to overcome obstacles to success and to social and professional progress. She is an over-achiever, in the sense that she can get the most from her knowledge and her psychological skills. She is aggressive, in the sense that she "moves in" on critical situations, either in confrontational terms (if she is basically an a), in intellectual terms (if she is basically an i), or in organizational and procedural fashion (if she is a contact r). In Saunders' (1985) typology, she is "POLY-ACTIVE," able to do many things at once and to accomodate to competing demands without getting confused or distressed.

Contact Guu: c(g).

This individual is the Moderator, the consummate problem solver. His skills enable him to dominate activities in the "crisis and conflict" area, in the way in which the Auu commands all the skills for "wheeling and dealing" in the social arena, and the way in which the Icc "holds all the cards" in the intellectual and perceptual domain. In contending with or anticipating problems, the c(g) is well tempered, moderate, patient, and forbearing. Not threatened by crises per se, he has the confidence and assurance that he, and his methods, will prevail. He promotes cooperative and collective action, defusing critical situations and desensitizing confrontations. In most of his screen roles, Gregory Peck epitomizes the c(g) character, most especially in his portrayal of Atticus in To Kill a Mockingbird.

Contact Guc: c(t').

The c(g) and the c(t') are both b(g) and, thus, both are achievers who cope effectively with stress and conflict. But whereas the c(g) is patient and forbearing, seemingly unmoved or undisturbed by stress and thus able to be passively aggressive in her confidence that her goals will be achieved, the c(t') is impatient and perennially fearful that the goal will be lost in the exigencies of the moment. Especially if she is a P(E) or b(e/e*), she becomes a Taskmaster, ever intense to get things done right now. Compulsively driven by a sense of crises, she drives others who are in her charge or, in the extreme, merely within her reach. (The I Guc drives herself nuts; the E Guc drives everybody else nuts.) She has lost the goal perspective of the c(g), and instead focuses her attention and her efforts on each successive task. The greater the pressure, the more intense the focus. Being G rather than T, she is innately confident and, thus, has more stayability than the c(t) or c(t.). This is the role model for the prototypical Drill Instructor (vide Jack Webb in the "DI"), and is reflected in the intense, driven role once portrayed by Karl Malden as "Skag."

Basic Gc: b(t*).

Although the (t*) has the "learnability" of the P(G), he does not have the energy resources of the b(g). Thus, rather than being "Stress Tolerant" and energized by stress, he tends to be complacently "Stress Resistant." He marshals his skills and abilities to evade or to ignore conflict. While the c(g) and c(g*) shout "Once more into the breach!'', the b(t*) is more disposed to step aside, to retreat "with confidence" rather than in disarray, to argue that it makes more sense to "live to fight another day." Thus, while he may be capable and confident (as discerned from the rest of the profile), he is measured and judicious in the extent to which he musters his resources in the face of challenge. In this sense, he will often be disappointing to others who know his level of ability: this is the person who "lets you down when you need him," at least until he perceives a need to react or to respond. [The P(T) doesn't let you down, because you didn't expect much in the first place.] In this sense, the t* is capable but "constrained." He resists pressure to extend himself, and until faced with inescapable or unignorable pressure, he "works to the rule," doing only what he is required to do. He retreats from stress and confrontation and tends to focus on immediate tasks until the problems go away. This is likely to be the most infuriating of the basic configurations: the b(g) and (g*) "rise to the occasion;" and one learns early on not to depend upon the b(t). Because he performs competently under "normal" circumstances, the b(t*) promotes expectations, but may fail to deliver in a pinch, unless "it pinches him." As with the Ac (u*), it is not a question of whether "he can," but whether "he will." Saunders (1985) does not accord the Gc (t*) a special place in his typology, but in the interests of symmetry it would seem appropriate to characterize this adaptation as "INACTIVE."

Contact Gcu: c(g°).

The c(g° is of two kinds. She may be the "Perseverator," or the "Manipulator."

The Perseverator, being rather languid and lethargic by disposition, tends to become the perennial student and the endless researcher who "worries problems to death" rather than seeking ultimate solutions. In crisis situations, she becomes overly methodical and "drives everyone nuts" while she meticulously buckles on her gear and counts her ammunition. "If you can keep your head while all about you are losing theirs and blaming it on you," you may be a c(g° (or a former Secretary of State). Cyrus Vance's image, as Secretary of State, characterizes the c(g°. Much of Ralph Nader's stoic perseverance and unflappable meticulousness also suggests this adaptation, although it is also suggestive of the c(t/).

The "Manipulator" is revealed in some business and many criminal populations. Also described as the "predator," she specializes in CREATING stress for others, and then (being "cool," insulated, and "in control') she manipulates and controls the situation to her satisfaction. Robert Shaw's role as the calculating, unflappable team leader in The Taking of Pelham 123 characterizes this adaptation, as do many of the roles portrayed by Steve McQueen and Humphrey Bogart.

Contact Gcc: c(t).

This individual is insensitive, indifferent, or resistant to confrontation and tends to ignore the pressures of crises, which otherwise mobilize the (g) and (G*), or immobilize the (t). With this impassiveness, the (t/) becomes characteristically Intransigent. Being P(G), he is confident and complacent under pressure and becomes smugly resistant. He does not yield to confrontation, and he is intolerant of any new requirements that are called for under stress. "Set in his ways," he may gain his ends by simply outlasting his opposition and wearing others down. The paradoxical strengths and weaknesses of this adaptation are personified by Menachem Begin, who simultaneously gained great concessions from his opponents over the years with the same intransigence that otherwise infuriated them. Like John Houseman in "The Paper Chase," he was not confrontational in the aggressive sense, but confidently evasive and "slippery," leaving his intended antagonists disarmed (Barbara Walters) or exhausted (Jimmy Carter and Anwar Sadat). It is doubtful that the c(t/) can survive except as a P(A) or OA+.

Primitive T (Task Oriented)

The Task Oriented person has difficulty learning to her level of ability and assimilating new knowledge and skills into an effective armamentarium. Lacking confidence in her abilities, she lacks confidence in herself and her ability "to cope." She thus has an inherent dislike for stress, is discomforted by surprise, and threatened by confrontation. This leaves her vulnerable to pressure and easily immobilized.

Unable to muster the resources necessary to maintain long-range perspective, she is characteristically task oriented, focused on immediate obstacles and the frustrations of overcoming "now time" problems. Like the P(U) in the social arena, the P(T) is (initially) bewildered, insecure, and lacks confidence in the presence of stress.

Basic Tc: b(g*).

As elsewhere in the PAS, deficiencies in the primitive level can give rise to compensatory mechanisms to overcome them. The b(g*) reflects this determination and conditioning to overcome the immobilizing vulnerability to stress and generates the Avis Personality: the (g*) tries harder and marshals his resources to become "Stress Energized." Dynamically, in Saunders' (1985) terms, he becomes "PRO-ACTIVE:" he works to avoid the trauma and discomfort of stress by anticipating problems and preparing for them. He becomes a "contingency planner," who tries to keep ahead of events, preempting problems before they become critical. He is energetic and an overattempter, forcing himself to achieve in areas that may often be "over his head." Characteristically, he must work harder to achieve less [especially in comparison with the b(g)], and this invests him with a chronic frustration. The (g*) typically "bites off more than he can chew," and is chronically disappointed with himself and his level of achievement. He is not necessarily his own worst enemy, but he is his own strongest competitor.

Contact Tcc (Saunders' Tcu): c(g/).

This is the Contender, who rises to the challenge of crisis and confrontation. Unlike the b(t*)'s who seek to evade or avoid challenge, and the b(t)'s who essentially retreat from it or are immobilized by it, the (g/) is compulsive in the face of conflict, moves out to confront it, and may actually perseverate problems and crises, once they arise. Because of the dedication and energy they bring to stress and conflict, these people tend to be very visible on the world scene when they ascend to leadership. Mao Tze-tung's preoccupation with continuous revolution, the Deng. Tsiao-ping's repeated resurrections from the political grave are all emblematic of the aggressive, confrontational, never-say-die character of the (g/). But just as the Ecc (i/) is exhausted by her intellectual effort, the Tcc (g/) is exhausted and debilitated by her struggles. Anthony Quinn's roles reflect the wearing, long-suffering character of this adaptation. :

Contact Tcu (Saunders' Tcc): c(t°).

Lacking the patience, the perseverance, and the stayability of the (g/), the c(t° is typically impatient, frustrated, and accordingly depressed by the sense of his own ineffectiveness. The (t° lives in a world of endless crisis, generated in part because he starts too many things but lacks the patience and the tolerance to finish most of them. He is not a quitter, however. His problem is not lack of energy, but lack of discipline and focus. He takes a shot-gun or machine-gun approach to life's problems and, though he resolves few of them (to his satisfaction), he girds his loins every morning to renew the battle. Like the fire-house dalmations of years long past, they "charge off" to every new alarm, each of which assumes new, first priority. Jack Klugman's role as "Quincy," the peripatetic medical examiner always in conflict with all other authority figures, and all of whose cases evolved into some crisis or other, is vintage (t°).

Basic Tu: b(t).

Basically, this is the "Stress Immobilized" adaptation, which is disabled or polarized by crisis or confrontation. The (t) fears confrontation and is a chronic underachiever because she doesn't have the confidence to try. She may become her own worst enemy who quits before she starts because the apprehension immobilizes her. Much as the basic Iu (i) personality is polarized by social challenge either to withdraw (Iuu) or to overrelate (Iuc), stress and conflict polarize the (t). Unable to maintain balance and perspective in the presence of mounting pressure, she flees to extremes. If she does not withdraw completely or collapse from the strain, she may become surprisingly effective in manipulating the stressful situations to her own advantage. In any event, the (t) does not anticipate nor impose stress; she responds to stress. Thus, in Saunders' trilogy, the Tu (t) adaptation is characterized as "REACTIVE."

Contact Tuc (Saunder's Tuu): c(g').

This is the Fourth Dimension analog of the Iuc (especially the Iuc R A), who is able to deal effectively with others by remaining detached and uninvolved. Similarly, the (g') seemingly copes with situations that are otherwise stressful for others by maintaining a degree of detachment and insulation. His tolerance is therefore similar to that of the (g° but with an even more impassive quality. Rather than getting "involved" or "excited" by stress, he maintains a highly controlled, laid back, low key demeanor when "pressed." He prefers to avoid confrontation and to evade, or distance himself, from situations that might otherwise become "feisty." By doing so, he may actually maneuver himself into positions from which he can effectively manipulate situations that would otherwise be stressful. There appears to be a heavy loading, in this adaptation, from certain elements of the criminal population. A detailed examination of such cases would probably reveal that they are criminals of the covert, nonviolent sort: the surreptitious burglars and off-street drug suppliers, rather than the aggressive, assaultive, "enforcers" (who are more likely to show up elsewhere in the contact g typologies). In his low key, bemused, but always triumphant role in "The Rockford Files," James Garner captures the dispassionate effectiveness of this adaptation.

Contact Tuu (Saunders' Tuc): c(t).

This is the crisis prone, panic prone, brittle individual who totally lacks any perspective for dealing with stress. Accordingly, "everything's a crisis," and the individual typically expends all of her resources at the first sign of a problem or confrontation. The (t') and (t°) also live in a state of continuing crisis, but the difference is one of perspective, stayability, and management of resources. The (t') enjoys her crisis atmosphere, and the (t° continues to plug away at it, if always in a state of near exhaustion. The (t) is threatened by change and prefers the status quo. She dreams of a stress-free environment and stressless activities. She is ineffective in coping with stress and pressure. If she does not exhaust herself immediately in an impulsive, down-in-the-first-round explosion and collapse, she may "smoulder" in fruitless silence and "flare up" later in futility. Herbert Lom, as the master-of-detectives who was catatonically incapacitated by Inspector Clousou's peregrinations, provides a delightful caricature of this adaptation.

Summary. and Application

As with the conventional, core dimensions of the PAS, the Fourth Dimension contemplates a polarity of Primitive forms (Goal Oriented or Task Oriented, revealed psychometrically by high or low scores on the Stroop Color Naming task), that flow via compensation and modification to four contact levels of adaptation which are characteristically different but within which subjects from either of the Primitive origins show remarkably similar presenting characteristics. In the Fourth Dimension, these four "levels" of contact adjustment are:

The Stress Complacent (+ +) are unruffled by pressure, stress, and confrontation and contend with it effectively through compulsive conditioning (T) if not through natural disposition and confidence (G). In either case, they are competent, capable contenders, for whom "getting the job done" is an accepted component of daily living.

The Stress Tolerant (- +) are cool and seemingly insulat ed or indifferent to stress. The G's are measured, persevering, and firm in their purpose; the T's have "overcome" stress vulnerability and in some cases have made their bed in the world of stress. Herein we find many of our career criminals, who perhaps have not so much been forced into a stressful "occupation," but rather have found that they can "make out" in an arena that is stressful to others but not to them.

The Stress Generating (+ -) are characteristically impatient and frenetic, and usually make a strong impact on those close to them personally or professionally. They are energetic people who can't stand inactivity and, in their hypermanic behavior, they often make life miserable for others while also, frequently, "forcing" things to get done: others find it better to accomodate them than to contend with them. At their best, they are energizers, mobilizers, and instigators, but at times they can precipitate crises or pressure with their zeal and momentum.

The Stress Disabled (- -) avoid, evade, or "stand fast" against stress (G), or collapse, explode, or are exhausted by it (T). In either case, they are not likely to be found "looking for trouble." Data from 25 "Normal" cases (students, school administrators, "conventional" educational and vocational counseling cases) and 25 erstwhile criminals provide an interesting contrast:

The Normals show a relatively even distribution throughout all the cells, and are as close to equal as you can get on CN (48% high, 52% low) and on TE (52% high, 48% low). Among the criminals, fully three-fourths (76%) are TE+, and NONE in this sample are found in the Stress Disabled categories. More than half fall in the behaviorally impassive, "cool," stress tolerant/stress manipulative categories. These data imply that you can "survive" in the "straight world" even though you can't cope with stress, change, confrontation, or the pressure of "doing things differently" - provided that you can find a job or an environment that will tolerate these particular "inadequacies."

Table 2. Fourth Dimension Distribution Differences
Percentage Distributions
25 NORMALS (more or less)
Percentage Distributions
25 Criminals
(g)   8 (g\) 8 16
(G)   16 (g\) 4 20
(g°) 20 (g') 16 36
(g°) 16 (g') 40 56
(t') 16 (t°) 8 24
(t1)  8 (t°) 16  24
(t\) 4   (t) 20 24
(t\) 0   (t) 0   0
Total 48      52  100
     40     60   100

Such people, however, do not become criminals (or if they do, presumably they are not "successful," as these presumably were, at least for a substantial or profitable period). Rather, the criminals are "coping people," a good portion of whom "seek stress" either as an adjustment mechanism (just as the Iuc "seeks activity" and the Euc "seeks intellectuality"), or because they find these activities are not stressful for them!

Some Construct Correlations

In his book, "The Presidential Character," Barber (1972) defines a four-fold classification schema for categorizing presidents which relates the effort they put forth, the satisfaction they have with their activities, and the long- term effectiveness of their performance. His categories are the Active-Positive, the Active-Negative, the Passive-Positive, and the Passive-Negative, which he characterizes as follows:

"The Active-Positive."

There is a congruence, a consistency, between much activity and the enjoyment of it, indicating relatively high self-esteem and relative success in relating to the environment. The man shows an orientation toward productiveness as a value and an ability to use his styles flexibly, adaptively, suiting the dance to the music. He sees himself as developing over time toward relatively well defined personal goals, growing toward his image of himself as he might yet be. There is an emphasis on rational mastery, on using the brain to move the feet. This may get him into trouble; he may fail to take account of the irrational in politics. Not everyone he deals with sees things his way, and he may find it hard to understand why.

"The Active-Negative."

The contradiction here is between relatively intense effort and relatively low emotional reward for that effort. The activity has a compulsive quality, as if the man were trying to make up for something or to escape from anxiety into hard work. He seems ambitious, striving upward, power-seeking. His stance toward the environment is aggressive, and he has a persistent problem in managing his aggressive feelings. His self-image is vague and discontinuous. Life is a hard struggle to achieve and hold power, hampered by the condemnations of a perfectionistic conscience. Active-Negatives pour energy into the political system, but it is an energy distorted from within.

"The Passive-Positive."

This is the receptive, compliant, other-directed character whose life is a search for affection as a reward for being agreeable and cooperative rather than personally assertive. The contradiction is between low self-esteem (on grounds of being unlovable, unattractive) and a superficial optimism. A helpful attitude helps dispel doubt and elicits encouragement from others. Passive-Positive types help soften the harsh edges of politics. But their dependence and the fragility of their hopes and enjoyments make disappointments in politics likely.

"The Passive-Negative."

The factors are consistent, but how are we to account for the man's political role-taking? Why is someone who does little in politics and enjoys it less there at all? The answer lies in the Passive-Negative's rooted orientation toward doing dutiful service; this com- pensates for low self-esteem based on a sense of uselessness. Passive-Negative types are in politics because they think they ought to be. They may be well adapted to certain nonpolitical roles, but they lack the flexibility and experi- ence to perform effectively as political leaders. Their ten- dency is to withdraw, to escape from the conflict and uncertainty of politics by emphasizing vague principles (especially prohibitions) and procedural arrangements. They may become guardians of the right and proper way, above the sordid politicking of lesser men.

Active-Positive presidents want most to achieve results.

Active-Negatives aim to get and keep power.

Passive- Positives are after love.

Passive-Negatives emphasize their civic virtue.

The relation of activity to enjoyment in a president thus tends to outline a cluster of characteristics, to set apart the adapted from the compulsive, compliant, and withdrawn types.

As he enlarges on his theme, Barber demonstrates that the various types differ in terms of their effectiveness over the long haul. By and large, the Positives have a good track record for achieving their programs (whether, they pursue them actively or passively). The Negatives tend to fail over the long run, even despite the aggressiveness with which the Actives among them pursue their programs.

Barber's categories show a remarkable degree of congruence with the basic classifications in our hypothetical fourth dimension. The

Active-Positive qualities are consistent with those of the b(g) Moderator.

The ambitious, compulsive, aggressive, potentially depressive Active-Negative has much of the quality of the b(g*) Stress Energized type, especially (but not exclusively) as it is played out in the c(g) Contender.

The compliant, reactive style of the Passive-Positive relates very well to the b(t*) Stress Resistant group, particularly in the c(g°) Perseverator configuration.

And the Passive-Negative qualities are seen in the b(t) Stress Immobilized characterization, with much of the description reading like a fitness report for Captain Queeg.

The fact that Barber's characterizations tend to flow to contact g configurations suggests that impatient people who produce low scores on TE don't fare well in politics (or at least don't get to the presidential level).

His Active-Passive delineations relate to the energy people put into their tasks, and the satisfactions they get from them, and not the success they are able to achieve. In our Fourth Dimension, this Active-Passive separation is made at the basic level, and interestingly it is measured by DS, which has always been regarded as a measure of activity level.

Finally, Barber projects success or failure on the basis of his Positive-Negative delineation, which in the Fourth Dimension is associated with the Primitive level. This may be the origin of the notion that heroes are born, not made, and that some people in the world are born losers.

In any event, if Barber is right, the ultimate effectiveness of a president (and perhaps of people in general) will not by determined by I or E, by R or F, nor by A or U. It is rooted in something that is measured by the Stroop Task.


Author Notes

I wish to extend special thanks to Ed Gunberg for his editorial assistance.


1. Typically, in an introductory presentation of a PAS dimension, we use the Primitive qualities to characterize the core features within the dimension. With individual growth and maturity, these features are controlled, disciplined, or abandoned via the process of compensation (DS) and modification (TE).

2. DS is used as the digraph for Digit Symbol. In contrast, the Digit Span task is represented by "D."

3. While John Gittinger has consistently viewed DS- as symptomatic of depression or inhibition in the P(E), he has recently observed that DS- may be a positive sign when associated with P(I), suggesting an interference effect from an external demand. At the very least, this observation suggests that the interaction between DS and P(I) is not simply a bipolar dynamic, but may be quadripolar, where either DS+ or DS- may be "good" or "bad" depending upon additional profile factors associated with Arithmetic, Picture Completion, Object Assembly, and other "environmental" subtests.

4. Dave Saunders, in his manual for administering and scoring the Fourth Dimension subtests, espouses a somewhat different basis for coding the interaction between these subtests and for evolving the "third formula" notations at the contact level. In his presentation, DS is coded high or low in relation to NL. CN is then coded high or low according to its relation to DS. TE, as here, is coded with reference to absolute score. This author concurs with Saunders in regard to the typography at basic level:

 Fu = b(g) = Tu = b(t) Ge = b(t*) = Te = b(g*) 
Beyond that, we diverge. Saunders calls Tuu a c(g') and Tuc a c(t). This perpetuates the inconsistency in which we call an Ruu a c(f') and an Ruc a ¢c(r). While a "foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of small minds," this author cherishes a coding scheme which, like Little Abner, "any fool can understand."

5. TE scores of 10 are coded as "o," or equivocal. It is left to "clinical judgment' to decide if a TE score of 10 will be considered high or low, in view of other dynamics on the profile, including NL, and the "slant" or thrust of the other two scores as viewed overall.

6. See Note 3 concerning low DS with (I) adjustments.